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Reverse osmosis

Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water treatment process that uses a semi-permeable membrane to separate water molecules from other substances. RO applies pressure to overcome osmotic pressure that favors even distributions. RO can remove dissolved or suspended chemical species as well as biological substances (principally bacteria), and is used in industrial processes and the production of potable water. RO is most commonly known for its use in drinking water purification from seawater, removing the salt and other effluent materials from the water molecules. RO can also be used to recover contaminated solvents, clean up polluted streams, and desalinate seawater. RO involves oxidizing the soluble divalent manganese (Mn 2+) with oxygen or other oxidizing agents to form insoluble manganese oxide (MnO 2). The manganese oxide can then be filtered out by sand filters or other methods. RO is important for enhancing the quality and safety of water, as well as protecting the water distribution system from corrosion and fouling. RO can also reduce the need for other water treatment processes, such as chlorination and softening.

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